In New England, the breeding season for the white-tailed
deer begins during late October, but most does won't breed until
November. The peak time usually occurs around the middle of the
The leaves of most deciduous trees have usually fallen by the end
of October. The oak leaves and beech leaves hang on a little longer.
Some young beech trees will keep their leaves through the winter.
The white pine tree drops its old needles during this time, also.
Over the course of a year, the white pine will lose and replace
about a third of its needles. The greatest portion are lost in the
The last of the songbirds migrate southward during this period.
The late migrants include the hermit
thrush and the fox sparrow.
The hawks continue to migrate south, though
in lesser numbers than in early autumn. See the Hawk
Mountain Sanctuary website for more information.
Red squirrels and chipmunks can be heard scurrying around in the leaves, searching for nuts and seeds
to store for the winter.
In November, the ermine (short-tailed
weasel) molts into its white winter coat.
Note: The "late autumn" period is the time
from approximately mid-October through November. Timing of events will
vary depending upon your latitude and elevation.